Traditional beer & oesophageal cancer

The audio is in isiZulu. See summary in English below.

MABUTHO: UDokotela uZodwa Dlamini ongumcwaningi enyuvesi yase Wits eGoli uthi nakuba ucwaningo lweminyaka emine olusanda ukukhishwa abenhlangano ecwaningo imithi kuleli, iMedical Research Council lubonisa ukuthi utshwala obenziwe ngommbila omdala bungadala umdlavuza kaqhoqhoqho kulabo ababuphuzayo, kepha uthi kudinga ukuthi okungenani kube umuntu usebuphuze iminyaka eminingi ngaphambi kokuba angangenwa umdlavuza.

DR ZODWA DLAMINI: Kuya ngokuthi sewubuphuze kangakanani ikakhulukazi le {cancer} yomqala, ngoba isilinganiso seminyaka kulena yomqala kuba iminyaka engamashumi amahlanu kuya kwengamashumi ayisithupha. Kusho kuthi kufanele ukuba usuphuze isikhathi eside {ukuze uphathwe umdlavuza kaqhoqhoqho} kulokhu kwakheleka {ngaphakathi emzimbeni} hhayi ukuthi kuba ukuphuza iglass eyodwa bese uyakuphatha, akwenzeki kanjalo.

MABUTHO: Uthi abantu baseMpumalanga Kapa ikakhulukazi eTranskei ibona abasemathubeni amaningi okuthola loluhlobo lomdlavuza ngenxa yohlobo lokudla abakudlayo.

DR ZODWA DLAMANI:Umdlavuza woqhoqhoqho ubaphatha kakhulu abantu basemakhaya, ikakhulukazi laba baseEastern Cape ngenxa yokudla abakudlayo. Kusho ukuthi akunawo umsoco obavikelayo kuleyo cancer.

MABUTHO: Empulamalanga Kapa izidlo ezifana nestambu okanye umngqushu kukhonzwe kakhulu kanti kwezinye izindawo kwenziwa ngommbila osumdala. Kodwa uDr Dlamini uthi abantu abasengozini kakhulu ilabo abaphuza utshwala besintu obuvutshelwe ngommbila omdala. Uthi loluhlobo lotshwala obuvutshelwe ngalendlela buyathandwa ezindaweni eziningi ngenxa yokuthi benza ukuthi lommbila osumdala ungalahlwa.

DR ZODWA DLAMINI: Bathanda kakhulu ummbila okade usubekiwe noyibozi abawulahli uma bezokwenza utshwala, bathi utshwala bezibozi. Kanti izibozi lezo { ziyingozi ngoba} ziyakhela emphinjeni ugcine usuphathwa icancer.

MABUTHO: Njengoba obunye utshwala buvutshelwa ngemithombo yamabele ethengwa ezitolo, sibe sesimbuza ukuthi mangakanani amathuba okuthola umdlavuza kulabo abaphuza lobo obunjalo.

DR ZODWA DLAMINI: Imithombo lena eyenziwe ngamabele bengingakayizweli olutheni ngaphandle kweyommbila ngoba iyabekwa, kodwa nawo amabele ayabekwa enqolobaneni kungenzeka ukuthi kuyathelelana kokubili kugcine lobungozi obusemmbileni bube khona nasemabeleni.

MABUTHO: Uthi kumele kwazeke ukuthi ziningi izinhlobo zomdlavuza ezingangena abantu ngale kwalena yoqhoqhoqho okanye yomqala. Uthi futhi inkinga ngomdlavuza awukhethi bala lamuntu, uphatha wonke umuntu.

DR ZODWA DLAMINI: Icancer sifo esiphatha wonke umuntu noma ngabe umnyama noma ngabe umhlophe kuyafana nje ngoba maningi kakhulu ama cancer angangena umuntu emzimbeni.

MABUTHO: Ucwaningo lwakamuva lweminyaka emine olwenziwe iMedical Research Council esifundazweni saseMpumalanga Kapa lubonisa ukuthi ummbila omdala unabo ubuthi obudala isifo somdlavuza okuthi uma sekuvutshelwa ngawo izinga lobuthi labo libe phezulu kunalelo nani elivunyelwe uphiko lwezempilo enhlanganweni yezizwe (WHO) kanye nalolo oluphathelene nezokudla (FAO). Khonamanjalo uRosyln Jacobs wenhlangano elwisana nokubhebhetheka kwesifo somdlavuza iCancer Association of South Africa uthi ngale kotshwala besintu obuphuzwayo ukuyekwa kokulinywa kwamasimi, izithelo nokudla okunomsoco ezindaweni zasemakhaya nakho kunomthelela ekwenyukeni kwezibalo zabantu abangenwa umdlavuza ezindaweni zasemakhaya.

ROSYLN JACOBS: Statistics have changed dramatically over the past five to ten years. It used to be less in our rural community because everybody in our rural community planted their food and ate off the land. Red meat was stayed away from it. It used to be consumed on special occasions, celebrations etc.

MABUTHO: Zingaphezulu kwesihlanu izinhlobo zesifo somdlavuza ezikhona emhlabeni eziphatha abantu besilisa kanye nabesifazane ngokwehlukana kwabo. Ngokombiko   wenhlangano yamazwe omhlaba elwisana nesifo somdlavuza International Union Against Cancer, minyaka yonke isifo somdlavuza sibulala abantu abalinganiselwa ezigidini ezisikhombisa, abayizigidi eziyishumi nomuvo bangenwa umdlavuza usuku nosuku nokulindeleke ukuba lezibalo zikhule zifinyelele ezigidini eziyishumi esithupha ngonyaka ka 2020 uma zingekho izaba ezenziwayo. Lenhlangano ithi lezizibalo zingancishiswa inqobo nje uma abantu bengashintsha indlela yokuphila yesimanje yokungawunyakazisi umzimba kanye nokudla izidlo ezingenamsoco, ukubhema ugwayi kanye namanzi amponjwana.

ENGLISH SUMMARY

Traditional beer  & oesophageal cancer

A researcher at the Witwatersrand University’€™s  Analytical Pathology Department, Dr Zodwa Dlamini, says home-made African traditional beer may not be as toxic as it’€™s recently been reported to be.

Dlamini’€™s comments follow the  widely publicized research by the Medical Research Council, which suggests that old maize, mainly used to brew traditional beer, uMqombothi in isiZulu, can cause oesophageal cancer.

‘€œIt depends on the amount of alcohol one consumes {before s/he suffers from esophageal cancer}. On average one has to drink it for about 50 ‘€“ 60 years before one can get oesophageal cancer.   So, it means you have to drink it for a long time before you can be diagnosed,’€ she said. She added, however, that not all home brewed African traditional beer is  as toxic as the one made of old rotten maize.

According to Dlamini people in some rural areas store their unused maize for long periods of time and later use it to make beer. By this time the maize might be already rotten.’€œThey do not throw away the old maize because they like to use it when brewing African traditional beer. They call it ‘€˜utshwala bezibozi’€™ (loosely translated the beer of rotten maize),’€ she said.

According to the four-year research conducted by the Medical Research Council in the former Transkei homeland, now part of the Eastern Cape province the fumonisin mycoticis, mainly produced on maize by the fungus was found to be above the required standard as set by the Joint Food Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives.

Meanwhile, Roslyn Jacobs from the Cancer Association of South Africa (CANSA) says, despite drinking African traditional beer the adoption of new urban lifestyles in rural areas also contributes to the increase of oesophageal cancer in rural areas.

‘€œStatistics have changed dramatically over the past five to ten years. It used to be less in our rural community because everybody in our rural community planted their food and ate off the land; red meat was stayed away from . It used to be consumed on special occasions, celebrations etc,’€ she said.

There are more than five different types of cancer worldwide. According to a report by International Union Against Cancer, cancer kills seven million people every year, while eleven million are diagnosed daily. By 2020, three out of every five new cancer cases will occur in the developing world. By applying existing evidence-based knowledge, it is possible to prevent about 40% of the 11 million cancer cases that occur each year.

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